Questionnaire for Pregnancy Care Programme
Q:Once a lady misses a period, how early she should consult a doctor?
A: A Home-pregnancy test is preferable to be done between 32 to 35 days; if it is positive soon she can consult her doctor.
a) To confirm that the pregnancy is inside the uterus
b) To confirm the duration of pregnancy
a) Pain abdomen
b) Bleeding or watery discharge from vagina
c) Decreased fetal movements
d) Excessive swelling of face and feet
FAQ’s about newborn baby
A:No. The stool passed in the first 2-3 days of life is called the Meconium and it is black and sticky in nature. In the next 2 days, it will be greenish in color
(transitional stools).The stools will change color to golden yellow after day 5 and he may pass even 10-15 stools in a day, after which it will settle down to 1-2
stools per day.
You need to worry if the baby passes white or clay colored stools with high colored urine or there is blood in the stools for which you need to contact the doctor
A: Babies also take in air every time they suck for the feed. And it is natural for the air to exit from the system in the form of burps and flatus. The process also
brings out a certain quantity of milk with it and presents as vomiting. Also the sphincter muscle at the lower end of the food pipe is not strong enough and it is a
patent junction. The muscle layer strengthens around the 6th month and the problem resolves automatically.
Ensure good latching at the breast while feeding and burp the child well after every feed to minimize the regurgitation.
Only if the vomiting is painful to the baby or the baby is not gaining adequate weight due to the vomiting, it will need further evaluation and treatment. Also
persistent, projectile and bile stained vomiting needs to be evaluated..
A: The baby can be given bath with warm water in a draught free room on the second day after birth. Smaller babies and preterm babies are preferably given
a sponge bath to prevent the risk of hypothermia
A: Breast milk meets all the nutritional needs of your baby. There is no need to supplement unless the baby is preterm or low birth weight. Take wholesome
nutritious food instead, and what is needed will automatically reach your child.
A:As long as you can, the longer, the better. Exclusive breast feeding is to be practiced for 6 months. Then on, add weaning food gradually, continue to
Ans:breast feed for 2 years.
Ans:Breast milk is wholesome food in the first 6 months; it has great anti infective properties. Breast fed babies are less likely to develop obesity, hypertension,
Ans:diabetes and atherosclerosis in later life. They have better cognition and higher IQ score.
Ans:The benefits to the mother are immense. It helps in maintaining lactational amenorrhea (a natural method to ensure birth spacing), helps with the involution of the
Ans:uterus and affords some protection against breast and ovarian cancer.
A: It is a normal phenomenon in newborn babies. Jaundice appears on day 2-3, reaches maximum intensity by day 4 and disappears by 10 days of life.
Nature’s supreme wisdom protects newborn babies with the bilirubin which has antioxidant properties.
However, jaundice appearing in the first 24 hrs of life, deeply jaundiced baby with lethargy, poor feeding and jaundice persisting for more than 14 days needs to
be attended to.
A: Consult a doctor immediately if you recognize any of these conditions:
i) Persistent vomiting or diarrhea
ii) Poor feeding
iii) Undue lethargy or excessive crying
iv) Failure to pass meconium within 24 hrs and urine within 48 hrs
v) Breathing difficulty
vi) Bleeding from any site
vii) Appearance of Jaundice within 24 hrs of age
viii) Jaundice not resolving after 10 days of birth
ix) Excessive drooling
x) Blue baby
xi) Any infection in the body-pustules, in the eyes, oral thrush etc
The pregnancy or gestational sac can be identified first around 5 weeks through a trans-vaginal ultrasound examination. The contents of the sac, the yolk sac [which provides nutritive support to the embryo] and the fetal pole can be visualized by 5-6 weeks. The cardiac activity in the embryo which tells us that the embryo is viable is comfortably imaged by 6-7 weeks.Very often an indication for a scan so early in pregnancy, would be a history of previous pregnancy loss or a pregnancy situated outside the uterus i.e,, an ectopic pregnancy. The scan is confirmatory in terms of location and the gestational age and therefore helps in instituting supportive therapy.
In those patients who have irregular cycles, this scan gives accurate dating of the pregnancy to within 3-5 days of the actual age of the mbryo.Multiple pregnancies such as twins or triplets, their type in terms of identical or fraternal are also best identified at this time. In those patients, where the rapy has been given to assist in reproduction, this situation can be anticipated as there may be formation of more than one ovum or egg.First trimester scan gives accurate dating of the pregnancy to within 3-5 days of the actual age of the embryo.Other associated problems could be spotting or bleeding in the first trimester—a threatened abortion when a scan may identify whether the embryo is still viable or not and on the event that it is not viable whether the products of conception have been expelled completely or not.Intervention in terms of suction and evacuation or simple medical line of management can be resorted to in the presence of retained products of conception.The other indications for an ultrasound in early pregnancy would be to identify associated lesions in the uterus such as fibroids or those in the adnexae like pathological cysts in the ovaries or para-ovarian cysts. This prepares the Obstetrician in addressing problems related to these lesions in the course of pregnancy. As the pregnancy advances there is technical difficulty in identifying these lesions.
This scan picks up physical abnormalities in the baby. This is the best time to visualize the foetus well, as the organs are large enough for comfortable imaging.Besides the baby is also very active and therefore makes visualization relatively easy.It becomes important to understand that all abnormalities in a foetus cannot be picked up on ultrasound. Besides, maternal obesity largely comes in the way of the examination as the penetration the ultrasound waves in these women is poor. The skill and the experience of the sonologist and the ultrasound machine also plays a key role in providing a ‘sound’ report All abnormalities in a foetus cannot be picked up on ultrasound.
In case the screening for chromosomal anomalies has been missed in the first trimester, it can be done at this time usually between16-21 weeks to identify the same.Scans performed subsequently assess the growth of the fetus and the biophysical profile in terms of its body movements, breathing movements and limb movements. The quantity of fluid around the fetus can be assessed and also the estimation of fetal weight. Few abnormalities in the fetus come to light only at this time. The scan done at this time can help in decision making with respect to time and mode of delivery. Blood flow study to the uterus and the fetus otherwise known as a Doppler study can also aid in decision making.